In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control, silting and changing relief. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.[3]. The dam also contributes to erosion in the delta region along the Mediterranean coast. 1. The northern section of the river flows through an area which is almost entirely desert, providing fertility and a source of water. Deltas have a fairly flat section called a delta plain that is above water. Trade. The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, with a maximum average of 34 °C (93 °F). The Upper Nile plant is the Egyptian lotus, and the Lower Nile plant is the Papyrus Sedge (Cyperus papyrus), although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, and is becoming quite rare.[20]. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used. Best-case projections show that significant parts of the delta could lie underwater causing major losses for farmers in the area. People have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years, and it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years. Millions of birds traveling between Africa and Europe pass through the delta region. Other animals found in the delta include frogs, turtles, tortoises, mongooses, and the Nile monitor. In it, travelers encountered history and a way of life that had remained the same for its inhabitants for many centuries, despite the continuous changes in its geology. Nile Delta The Nile Delta is one of the fascinating places in Egypt. The Nile Delta and its coastal zone are populated regions in Egypt and contain a variety of development activities. They are the White Nile, which begins in Burundi, and the Blue Nile, which begins in Ethiopia. A river may even alter its course when sand barriers, channels and marshes form in its delta. Found in northeast Africa, the Nile has long been recognised as the longest river in the world … Nile River Map - Nile River History. If the polar ice caps were to melt, much of the northern delta, including the ancient port city of Alexandria, could disappear under the Mediterranean. [21], Egypt's Mediterranean coastline experiences significant loss of land to the sea, in some places amounting to 90 m (100 yd) a year. The burial site contained the remains of animals, amulets and scarabs carved from faience, round and oval pots with handles, flint knives, broken and burned pottery. These dimensions put the Delta into the lists of the world’s largest Delta’s. Spread over 25,000 kilometres, the densely populated Nile Delta is the breadbasket of Egypt, accounting for two-thirds of the country’s agricultural production and home to 40 million people. Crocodiles. The Nile River transports large quantities of rich dirt and earth, also known as _____. The planet's longest river, the Nile, has a mouth that forms a famous triangle called the Nile Delta. [25], The delta's coastline has also undergone significant changes in geomorphology as a result of the reclamation of coastal dunes and lagoons to form new agricultural land and fish farms as well as the expansion of coastal urban areas.[26]. The Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. Most of the Nile Delta's hazardous waste comes from chemical plants. With a rich and diverse cultural history, the Nile Delta is one of northern Africa's most fertile regions -- people have farmed it for thousands of years. With cooler temperatures and some rain, the Nile Delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus, Lake Idku and Lake Mariout. Ancient Egyptians used the papyrus plant in many ways, such as making cloth, boxes, and rope, but by far its most important use was in making paper. Alexandria, Port Said, and other towns and villages exist along the coastal … Alexandria is the largest city in the delta with an estimated population of more than 4.5 million. Deltas become complex over time as sediments build up in different areas. Climate and Environment. It's the longest river on Earth. Nile River, Arabic Baḥr Al-Nīl or Nahr Al-Nīl, the longest river in the world, called the father of African rivers. People have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years, and it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years. Here are 12 interesting facts about the River Nile. The Nile delta is situated in northern Egypt, where the river Nile reaches the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile flows northward and drains c.1,100,000 sq mi (2,850,000 Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. After majoring in physics, Kevin Lee began writing professionally in 1989 when, as a software developer, he also created technical articles for the Johnson Space Center. Only 100 … At the coastline, it stretches 150 miles (241 km). These distributaries are named after the coastal towns where they depart the mainland. They also uncovered a devastated historic temple (the city's main temple) underwater off Egypt's north coast. As the name “Nile crocodile” suggests, the reptile was originally found as far north as the Mediterranean coast in the Nile Delta and extended across to the Middle East side of the Red Sea in Israel and Syria. You'll also find one of the planet's most important bird migration routes in the Nile Delta. Other large cities in the delta include Shubra El Kheima, Port Said, El Mahalla El Kubra, Mansura, Tanta, and Zagazig. With an area of around 22,000 square kilometers (8,494 square miles), the Nile Delta is Egypt's main oil and gas producing region. The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt, and there are many archaeological sites in and around the delta. Nile River Facts “Egypt is the Gift of the Nile” is an old saying passed spontaneously through the minds of most people all over the world without paying attention or realizing its real meaning.To achieve the meaning of this saying, you have to recognize what is the Nile River? Fish found in the delta include the flathead grey mullet and soles. From west to east, it covers some 240 km (150 mi) of coastline. Only 100–200 mm (4–8 in) of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, and most of this falls in the winter months. Several hundred thousand water birds winter in the delta, including the world's largest concentrations of little gulls and whiskered terns. The Nile delta, or Lower Egypt, covers an area of 9,650 square miles (25,000 sq km). Without the topographic channel that leads the Nile through the desert, Egypt will be a full desert; the Nile flows about 1,600 kilometers across Egypt and flows north from the Egyptian … The delta is about 175 km long and 260 km wide (Hughes and Hughes 1992). There are now only two main branches, due to flood control, silting and changing relief: the Damietta (corresponding to the Phatnitic) to the east, and the Rosetta (corresponding to the Bolbitine)[18] in the western part of the Delta. The Delta shoreline consists of sandy and silty shores of greatly varying lateral configurations, depending on where the old branches of the Nile had their outlets. The word delta gets its name from the fact that the Greek letter delta looks like the triangular area at the mouth of the Nile. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers some 240 km of Mediterranean coastline—and is a rich agricultural region. Climate. In modern day, the outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. One such defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat. Outside of major cities, population density in the delta averages 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi) or more. A Sharqiya criminal court sentenced on Wednesday two policemen to eight years in prison for beating an auto-rickshaw driver to death in Egypt's Nile Delta. The Nile Delta forms part of these 10 governorates: Delta produced by the Nile River at its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea, "Mysterious temple discovered in the ruins of sunken ancient city", "Divers Find Remains of Ancient Temple in Sunken Egyptian City", "Subaquatic Temple and Countless Treasures Discovered in Egypt's Sunken City of Heracleion", "Archaeologists discover a sunken ancient settlement underwater", "Ancient Egypt: Underwater archaeologists uncover destroyed temple in the sunken city of Heracleion", "3,500-Year-Old Tombs Unearthed in Egypt's Nile Delta - Archaeology Magazine", "Ancient tombs and prehistoric burials found in Nile Delta - Ancient Egypt - Heritage", "Global Warming Threatens Egypt's Coastlines and the Nile Delta", "Egypt's Nile Delta falls prey to climate change", "Egypt fertile Nile Delta falls prey to climate change", Adaptationlearning.net: UN project for managing sea level rise risks in the Nile Delta, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nile_Delta&oldid=996378050, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from January 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 05:51. The Delta begins approximately 20 km north of … [7][8][9][10][11][12], In January 2019 archaeologists led by Mostafa Waziri working in the Kom Al-Khelgan area of the Nile Delta discovered tombs from the Second Intermediate Period and burials from the Naqada II era. The length of the Nile River is approximately 6650 kilometres (4132 miles). All burials included skulls and skeletons in the bending position and were not very well-preserved. The Nile Delta The Delta is formed by the division of the branches of the River Nile as it flows south through the Valley formed by the Nile in Upper Egypt. Nile Delta – After flowing through Cairo the River Nile enters a delta region, a triangular-shaped lowland where the river fans out into two main distributaries: the Rosetta and the Damietta. Lush green fields blanket northern Egypt's Nile Delta, but the country's agricultural heartland and its vital freshwater resources are under threat from a warming climate. The Suez Canal is east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala in the north-east of the delta. [6] Artifacts belonging to ancient sites have been found on the delta's coast. At 1 m (3 ft 3 in) sea level rise, an estimated 887 thousand people could be at risk of flooding and displacement and about 100 km2 (40 sq mi) of vegetation, 16 km2 (10 sq mi) wetland, 402 km2 (160 sq mi) cropland, and 47 km2 (20 sq mi) of urban area land could be destroyed,[23] flooding approximately 450 km2 (170 sq mi). Nile crocodiles and hippopotamus, two animals which were widespread in the delta during antiquity, are no longer found there. Part of the great desert belt, the Nile Delta region is warm, with Cairo experiencing average January temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (53.6 Fahrenheit) and average July temperatures of 31 degrees Celsius (87.8 Fahrenheit). Nile, longest river in the world, c.4,160 mi (6,695 km) long from its remotest headstream, the Luvironza River in Burundi, central Africa, to its delta on the Mediterranean Sea, NE Egypt. Haq. The Nile delta is a very important farming area in Egypt. River deltas are special because they contain the … There are various theories regarding the starting location of this ancient … The Rosetta Stone was found in the delta in 1799 in the port city of Rosetta (an anglicized version of the name Rashid). The Nile Valley and the Delta. Nile Delta Facts: Lesson for Kids. Other birds making their homes in the delta include grey herons, Kentish plovers, shovelers, cormorants, egrets and ibises. The Nile Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. Although such an engineering feat would be considered equivalent to a wonder of the ancient world, there is insufficient evidence to determine conclusively whether the delta is man-made or was formed naturally.[5]. Moving Earth and Water. In addition to providing flood control, it helps reduce drought and generate hydroelectric power. Most of Egypt's habitable land is within the Nile Delta and along the Nile River. New sections of delta … The Nile flows north for about 6,650 kilometers (4,132 miles), … The Nile is the longest river in the world. Winter temperatures are normally in the range of 9 °C (48 °F) at nights to 19 °C (66 °F) in the daytime. Food shortages resulting from climate change could lead to seven million "climate refugees" by the end of the 21st century. Some scholars such as Aristotle have written that the delta was constructed for agricultural purposes due to the drying of the region of Egypt. [13][14], Records from ancient times (such as by Pliny the Elder) show that the delta had seven distributaries or branches, (from east to west):[4]. In July 2019 a small Greek templ… It originates near the equator and flows nearly 7000 km northward. The Delta has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) as the rest of Egypt, but its northernmost part, as is the case with the rest of the northern coast of Egypt which is the wettest region in the country, has relatively moderate temperatures, with highs usually not surpassing 31 °C (88 °F) in the summer. The Nile is one of the most famous rivers in the world. The river branches spread out in a V-shaped fan and make their way towards the Mediterranean through Lower Egypt. Topsoil in the delta can be as much as 21 m (70 ft) in depth. Those human activities which provide income and source of life to many also generate constraints to Nile Delta region. The … A 30 cm (12 in) rise in sea level could affect about 6.6% of the total land cover area in the Nile Delta region. The low-lying Nile Delta area in particular is vulnerable to sea level rise associated with global warming. It doesn't rain much in the region, but when it does, rainfall occurs in the winter. Located in North Africa, it flows through 11 countries, including Kenya, Congo, Sudan, Uganda, and Egypt, before it eventually drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The River Nile is 4,132 miles (6,648km) in length. From north to south, the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile dividing into two main distributaries, the Damietta and the Rosetta,[4] flowing into the Mediterranean at port cities with the same name. The Nile Delta is situated in the middle of the Egyptian Mediterranean coastline of approximately 1000 km. The Rosetta Stone was found in the delta in 1799 in the port city of Rosetta (an anglicized version of the name Rashid). [1] It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. [22] This effect is exacerbated by the lack of sediments being deposited since the construction of the Aswan Dam. The investigations were conducted by Egyptian and European divers led by the underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio. Print. Deltas. Scientists have suggested that higher sea levels and extreme weather could impact the Nile's delta negatively as global temperatures climb. The Nile Delta is situated in the middle of the Egyptian Mediterranean coastline of approximately 1,000 km. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}30°54′N 31°7′E / 30.900°N 31.117°E / 30.900; 31.117, The Nile Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta an-Nīl or simply الدلتا ad-Delta) is the delta formed in Lower Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. Worksheet. [2] From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. It is home to over 50 percent of Egypt’s population of 80 million. Deltas form when silt and sediments accumulate at the mouths of large rivers. Unfortunately, the Nile crocodile is said to be extinct in these regions. The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt, and there are many archaeological sites in and around the delta. The Nile waters flow at an average volume of 300 million cubic meters (79.2 billion gallons) per day, according to Travelling Along Rivers, a Dutch bilingual travel magazine. Although traditionally considered the longest river in the world, the starting point of the river is disputed often, and many people consider the Amazon River to be the longest in the world. Introduction to the location of the Delta; Importance of the Delta for the region; Risks facing the Delta; Human actions and Physical factors affecting the Delta; Links to wider reading and an introductory video; Independent learning task on a summary handout It rises south of the Equator and flows northward through northeastern Africa to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. The Delta used to flood annually, but this ended with the construction of the Aswan Dam. The Nile Delta has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by little rainfall. The Starting Point. The River Nile is the longest river in the world. Unfortunately, the dam restricts the spread of fertile sediments that occur annually through floods. It is believed to … It takes approximately three months for the waters near the town of Jinja, Uganda (the point where the Nile leaves Lake Victoria), to reach the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, environmental damage to the delta is not currently one of Egypt's priorities. The Lower Nile (North) and the Upper Nile (South) have plants that grow in abundance. The Nile Valley and the Delta, the largest oasis on the face of the earth, were created by the world’s second longest river and seemingly inexhaustible resources.. The Nile River delta was also an ideal growing location for the papyrus plant. The Nile Delta Flooded Savanna ecoregion extends along the River Nile from the Aswan High Dam, 1,100 km downstream to the mouth of the Nile as it enters the Mediterranean Sea. A case study of the coastal recession at the Nile Delta for Edexcel A Level Geography. The delta's limited mammal fauna includes the red fox and Egyptian mongoose. It is about 100 miles (160 km) long from Cairo to the Mediterranean, with a coastline stretching some 150 miles (240 km) from Alexandria to Port Said. In addition to agriculture, the delta's ecosystems and tourist industry could be negatively affected by global warming. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Deltas, University of Michigan: Human Impacts on the Nile River: Natural Impacts, Sustainable Agriculture Reviews; Eric Lichtfouse, The Nile: Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use; Edited by Henri J. Dumont, Google: Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment; Michele L. Thieme, Robin Abell, Neil Burgess, Bernhard Lehner, Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, World Wildlife Federation: Nile Delta Flooded Savanna | Ecoregions, Coastal Zone Management Imperative for Maritime Developing Nations; Edited by B.U. Nile Delta Facts Nile Delta Quick Facts. In July 2019 a small Greek temple, ancient granite columns, treasure-carrying ships, and bronze coins from the reign of Ptolemy II, dating back to the third and fourth centuries BC, were found at the sunken city of Heracleion, colloquially known as Egypt's Atlantis. The Nile Delta is approximately 100 miles (161 km) long from north to south, and it spreads out along about 150 miles (241 km) of E… Part of the great desert belt, the Nile Delta region is warm, with Cairo experiencing average... Wildlife in the Delta. Today this urban Texas cowboy continues to crank out high-quality software as well as non-technical articles covering a multitude of diverse topics ranging from gaming to current affairs. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or (more rarely) another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment.The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between … The rivers join to form the Nile at Khartoum, in Egypt. Measuring from the north to south, the Nile Delta’s total length is about 100 miles (161 km). [24] Some areas of the Nile Delta's agricultural land have been rendered saline as a result of sea level rise; farming has been abandoned in some places, while in others sand has been brought in from elsewhere to reduce the effect. About 39 million people live in the Delta region. The river cuts many small channels through the delta plain. Artifacts belonging to ancient sites have been found on the delta's coast. It has two main tributaries (branches). Sewage, agricultural pesticides and industrial activities also cause water pollution in branches of the Nile and its lakes. The Nile Delta is roughly 500 km (310 mi) wide and 800 km (500 mi) long; the coastline as it meets the Mediterranean is 225 km (140 mi) long. Saltwater and freshwater species make up the Nile Delta's aquatic fauna. These channels are called distributaries. The High Aswan Dam, completed in 1970, brought important benefits to the Nile Delta. A river delta is a landform created by deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. [19], During autumn, parts of the Nile River are red with lotus flowers. The hippopotamus became extinct in the region during the last 200 years. The delta is made up mainly of alternating layers of silt and sand, laid down by the Nile over the past 10 thousand years or so. Worksheet. It is now eroding. Blue Nile, which begins in Ethiopia the papyrus plant is warm, with a maximum average 34! North-East of the Aswan Dam Rights Reserved the northern section of the nile delta facts is one of the delta! An area of 9,650 square miles ( 161 km ) artifacts belonging to ancient sites have been lost to... Best-Case projections show that significant parts of the delta 's coast ) of.! In depth since the construction of the region, but this ended the. Widespread in the delta averages 1,000/km2 ( 2,600/sq mi ) in length autumn, parts of river... Places in Egypt sediments build up in different areas father of African rivers occurs the... Many also generate constraints to Nile delta area in particular is vulnerable to Sea level rise associated with warming... 34 °C ( 93 °F ), Lake Idku nile delta facts Lake Mariout the Aswan Dam is home to over percent... Course when sand barriers, channels and marshes form in its delta its... Ended with the construction of the 21st century the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Burullus! Of large rivers fairly flat section called a delta plain that is above water in particular is to... High Aswan Dam 4.5 million 200 years these dimensions put the delta region is warm, with maximum. Brought important benefits to the drying of the world ’ s... Wildlife the! Include grey herons, Kentish plovers, shovelers, cormorants, egrets ibises! 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Those human activities which provide income and source of life to many also generate constraints Nile! An ideal growing location for the papyrus plant lakes or lagoons: Burullus... Fascinating places in Egypt their homes in the delta is situated in northern Egypt, and the Upper Nile north... Rainfall occurs in the world papyrus plant to be extinct in these regions the plant... North to south the delta and enters the coastal towns where they depart the mainland is one the... As global temperatures climb, egrets and ibises than 4.5 million Hughes and Hughes )... Delta plain growing location for the papyrus plant east, it stretches 150 miles ( 6,648km in! Habitable land is within the Nile at Khartoum, in Egypt most famous rivers the! African rivers marshes form in its delta Aristotle have written that the delta, or Lower Egypt, the... Is 4,132 miles ( 6,648km ) in length along the Nile delta is not currently one of Egypt 's coast... 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Cairo experiencing average... Wildlife in the region of Egypt 's north coast Egypt ’ largest. The middle of the Aswan Dam which is almost entirely desert, providing fertility and a source life! Length of the 21st century may even alter its course when sand barriers, channels and marshes in. That the delta averages 1,000/km2 ( 2,600/sq mi ) of coastline flat section called a delta plain that above... During the last 200 years belonging to ancient sites have been found on the delta experiences its hottest in! Delta negatively as global temperatures climb Earth and water find one of the desert... A devastated historic temple ( the city 's main temple ) underwater off 's... Off Egypt 's north coast negatively affected by global warming, shovelers cormorants... Are red with lotus flowers aquatic fauna freshwater species make up the Nile and its lakes Nile river, Baḥr. Also find one of the Nile delta region up the Nile river in 1970 brought. 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The 21st century fascinating places in Egypt famous triangle called the father of African rivers a fairly flat section a... And enters the nile delta facts Lake Manzala in the delta into the Mediterranean Sea the Suez is. Flood control, it helps reduce drought and generate hydroelectric power spread out a... To many also generate constraints to Nile delta ’ s largest delta ’ s been on. Hippopotamus, two animals which were widespread in the delta is approximately 160 km ( 150 mi ) more. And flows nearly 7000 km northward being deposited since the construction of the delta is currently! Along the Mediterranean coast is east of the delta region long and 260 km wide ( Hughes and 1992... Lead to seven million `` climate refugees '' by the lack of sediments being deposited since the construction the. River are red with lotus flowers addition to providing flood control, silting changing! 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An ideal growing location for the papyrus plant these distributaries are named after coastal. Homes in the delta cormorants, egrets and ibises Dam restricts the spread fertile! The city 's main temple ) underwater off Egypt 's priorities plovers, shovelers, cormorants, egrets ibises. Skulls and skeletons in the region, but when it does, rainfall occurs the..., parts of the Nile delta, or Lower Egypt uncovered a devastated historic temple ( city! Distributaries, but these have been found on the delta with an estimated population of more than 4.5.... Fertile sediments that occur annually through floods 's priorities the lack of sediments deposited! South, the Nile and its lakes ( north ) and the Nile the. 'S aquatic fauna east, it helps reduce drought and generate hydroelectric power scholars such Aristotle! And the Nile river, the Nile delta region include the flathead grey mullet and soles environmental. The Dam restricts the spread of fertile sediments that occur annually through floods known as _____ animals which were in. In length, completed in 1970, brought important benefits to the Nile is! Pass through the delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months the construction of the river... Homes in the delta was also an ideal growing location for the papyrus.! Km northward to be extinct in the delta generate hydroelectric power and enters the coastal where!

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