Ecosystem services is a concept that draws attention to the dependence of people on nature. 26. 2008). 30), development, and transformation. urban ecosystem services in their biophysical, economic, and socio-cultural dimensions. 2011; Barthel and Isendahl 2013). The use of the term ecosystem services became widespread after the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) in 2005. We need to be concerned with the generation potential, not only to uphold and safeguard the well-being of city inhabitants, but also to effectively manage the potential of cities as arenas for learning (this aspect is discussed in detail in  Chap. 2008). We conclude that the use of the concept of urban ecosystem services can play a critical role in reconnecting cities to the biosphere, and reducing the ecological footprint and ecological debt of cities while enhancing resilience, health, and quality of life of their inhabitants. (2012). Traditional ecological knowledge and community resilience to environmental extremes: A case study in Doñana, SW Spain. Community gardens as contexts for science, stewardship, and civic action learning. ecosystem services. 2008). Lundy, L., & Wade, R. (2011). 2009). 31. Voicu, I., & Been, V. (2008). Pressure Washing. (2011). PhD candidate, Evaluation of ecosystem services to enhance urban biodiversity. Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services. Groening, G. (1995). These ecosystem services include reducing flood risk, cooling urban areas, and providing spaces for recreation. In Asia, the share of rice supplied by the city to urban residents ranges from 7 % (in Phnom Penh) to 100 % (in Vientiane, where pressure on land is low); Hanoi is an intermediary case with 58 % (Anh 2004; Ali et al. Seven different urban ecosystems have been identified: street trees; lawns/parks; urban forests; cultivated land; wetlands; lakes/sea; and streams. (2008). Urban ecosystem, any ecological system located within a city or other densely settled area or, in a broader sense, the greater ecological system that makes up an entire metropolitan area. de Stefano, S., & Deblinger, R. D. (2005). Social media as a tool to understand people’s preferences for outdoor recreation by Xiao Ping Song . In this paper, six local and direct services relevant for Stockholm are addressed: air filtration, micro climate regulation, noise reduction, rainwater drainage, sewage treatment, and recreational and cultural values. School garden and kleingaerten: For education and enhancing life quality. The Working for Water program was established in 1995 as a direct response to the loss of this critical resource (Van Wilgen et al. (2005). Urban agriculture for sustainable cities: Using wastes and idle land and water bodies as resources. Ecological knowledge is lost in wealthier communities and countries. Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: The Chicago urban forest climate project. 2001, p. 129), including city catchments, and peri-urban forests and cultivated fields (La Rosa and Privitera 2013). The scaling of green space coverage in European cities. (2007). The difficulty of measuring ecosystem services in biophysical terms increases as the focus shifts from provisioning, to regulating to habitat, to cultural services. Merriam-Webster defines an ecosystem as “a community of organisms and its environment functioning as an ecological unit.” This definition means that an ecosystem is more than just landscape. In recent years a mounting body of literature advanced our understanding of urban ecosystem services in their biophysical, economic, and socio-cultural dimensions. Green roofs as urban ecosystems: Ecological structures, functions, and services. (2010); Domene and Saurí (2007), Environmental education and cognitive development, Community gardens (Anguelovski 2012), vegetable gardens (Domene and Saurí 2007), Enrichment due to “caring activity” (Domene and Saurí 2007), Individuals, communities, urban parks (Anguelovski 2012), Food security, knowledge preservation (Domene and Saurí 2007), Social cohesion potential, decreased health-care costs, (Anguelovski 2012); Domene and Saurí (2007), Allotment gardens, vegetable gardens (Domene and Saurí 2007), People engage in (outdoor) activities in their communities, Recreation, sense of place, social cohesion, Human-nature interactions, unplanned change/degradation of ecosystems, Food security, cognitive development, habitat loss (Domene and Saurí 2007), Increased resilience, maintenance of cultural identity by immigrant (Domene and Saurí 2007), (Anguelovski (2012); Domene and Saurí (2007), People engage in (outdoor) activities in their communities, integration of marginalized (immigrant) societal groups (Anguelovski 2012), Development potential for waste/brown fields. A better understanding of ecosystem services, their spatial characteristics and interrelations is very much needed in order to move ecosystem services from an assessment tool to a practical instrument for planning and design (Troy and Wilson 2006). Residential property values improved by landscaping with trees. Van Wilgen, B. W., Le Maitre, D. C., & Cowling, R. M. (1998). Urban ecosystem services (UES) is an essential approach to the development of sustainable cities and must be incorporated into urban planning to be able to improve humans’ life quality. 2009; EEA 2010; Depietri et al. Such spill-over may be unidirectional or directional, the latter partly due to physical geography (e.g., of waterways, topography, and location of roads) and the location of the beneficiaries. Quantifying ecosystem service performance involves the use of biophysical measures and indicators. However, pollinators, pest regulators and seed dispersers are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to urban development and expansion. Remnant areas need the strictest protection as the city continues to grow within these areas (see  Chap. From a temporal perspective, long-term provisioning of ecosystem services within cities raises concerns about population dynamics, including the risks of extinction (at least on the local scale) and potential for re-colonization. The New York local food movement is diverse, comprised of NGOs, research and education institutions, government organizations and many individuals. Published with kind permission of © Elsevier 2012. Deposition of particulate matter of different size fractions on leaf surfaces and in waxes of urban forest species. It seems reasonable that the general character of urban green structures should be as similar as possible to that of the hinterlands in order to benefit the most from potential near-city source areas of ecosystem-service-providing organisms. Thus an attractive option for climate change mitigation in cites is tree-planting programs. Because city environments may be stressful for inhabitants, the recreational aspects of urban ecosystems are among the highest valued ecosystem service in cities (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989; Bolund and Hunhamar 1999; Chiesura 2004; Konijnendijk et al. Ernstson, H. (2012). Tech. The value of urban tree cover: A hedonic property price model in Ramsey and Dakota Counties, Minnesota, USA. The scope of the journal is broad, including interactions between urban ecosystems and associated suburban and rural environments. No/low travel costs to neighborhood open spaces. Economic returns from the biosphere. (2011). Measurement of road traffic noise reduced by the employment of low 848 physical barriers and potted vegetation. Chan, K. M. A., Satterfield, T., & Goldstein, J. Understanding the distribution of UES across a landscape can help managers ensure an equitable distribution of services. An evaluation of flood control and urban cooling ecosystem services delivered by urban green infrastructure. Kaplan, R. (1983). Booth, D. B. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest. Korpela, K. M., & Ylén, M. (2007). (2006b). The term ecosystem services is perhaps new, but the concept is not. 26). Carbon storage and flux in urban residential greenspace. (2009). (2008). The value of coastal wetlands for protection of property against hurricane wind damage. Incorporating resilience in the assessment of inclusive wealth: An example from South East Australia. Examples include studies conducted in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and Cheffield, United Kingdom (Bennett 1997). Costanza, R., Wilson, M. A., Troy, A., et al. This area, which was previously intended for the construction of parking spaces and high-end apartments, is today a popular green space created by the initiative of neighbors and environmental activists. (1992). Likewise, vegetation reduces temperature in the hottest months through shading and through absorbing heat from the air by evapotranspiration, particularly when humidity is low (Bolund and Hunhammar 1999; Hardin and Jensen 2007). Seven different urban ecosystems have been identified: street trees; lawns/parks; urban forests; cultivated land; wetlands; lakes/sea; and streams. 2001). Troy, A., & Grove, J. M. (2008). Urban gardens: Pockets of social-ecological memory. Blitzer, E. J., Dormann, C. F., Holzschuh, A., et al. (2010). Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health. The perceived scarcity of available green space in Barcelona and a disregard of the need for specific ecosystem services by urban planning has led to many individual and community-based informal greening initiatives (Domene and Saurí 2007; Arbaci and Tapada-Berteli 2012). Invasive alien plants have become a dominant feature in the catchments that supply Cape Town with water. A study by Avlonitis (2011) has shown the potential of communities to work in conjunction with larger government initiatives such as Working for Wetlands, where community initiative and labor are used to promote the development of indigenous vegetation gardens. These plants use significantly more water than the indigenous vegetation, and thereby decrease surface run-off and ultimately water supply and security (Le Maitre et al. The amount of carbon stored and sequestered by urban vegetation has often been found to be quite substantial, for instance, 6,187 t/year in Barcelona (Chaparro and Terradass 2009) and 16,000 t/year in Philadelphia (Nowak et al. 11.2). (2007), Urban green areas provide opportunities for recreation, meditation, and relaxation, Allotment gardening as preservation of socio-ecological knowledge, Barthel et al. Gotham, K., & Brumley, K. (2002). 2007), but also who in society benefits from them (Ernstson 2012). For a detailed examination of the connection between urbanization and food systems, see  Chap. In the following tables a review of ecosystem services for three different cities are presented: Cape Town, New York, and Barcelona (in-depth assessments on Cape Town and New York are presented in  Chaps. People often choose where to live in cities based in part on the characteristics of the natural landscapes (Tyrväinen and Miettinen 2000). (2011). Urban food insecurity in Cape Town, South Africa: An alternative approach to food access. (2010a). Incremental service levels, controlling for bundles. We estimate (1) directly from remotely sensed data. While robust evidence exists that plant physiology, abundance, and distribution within cities are basic parameters affecting the magnitude and efficiency of air pollution removal, little is known about effects of plant diversity on the stability of this ecosystem service. Reconnecting to the biosphere. Tyrväinen, L. (1997). The city is home to 19 of the 440 national vegetation types, and hosts 52 % of the nationally critically endangered vegetation types (Rebelo et al. These areas tend to be associated with erosion problems and are a major financial sink for City management who strive to protect settlements, often with expensive engineering interventions. 2008, 2011; Escobedo and Nowak 2009) and costs from increased property damages with loss of natural barriers to climate extremes (Costanza et al. T1 - Urban ecosystem services. Key responsibilities We are looking for an outstanding PhD candidate to support a recently granted project by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. Ecosystem service research is slowly merging with landscape ecology and spatial planning to address the issue of the scales and structures related to the generation and utilization of ecosystem services (see e.g., Fisher et al. Commonly cited benefits of urban ecosystems are still poorly supported by empirical evidence, and our understanding of their links to well-being is uneven. However, although the evidence of most studies suggests that green spaces have beneficial health effects, it should be noted that establishing a causal relationship has proven very difficult (Lee and Maheswaran 2010). Multiple valuation languages come at play in our interaction with urban nature and perspectives relying on single values are unlikely to capture the complexity of ecosystem services. 2010a), and the study of the links between green areas, human health and recovery rates is a rapidly expanding field of research (Grahn and Stigsdotter 2003). Choisir vos préférences en matière de cookies . Reaching a comprehensive picture of the multiple potential benefits and nuisances of restoring or losing urban ecosystems therefore involves endorsing integrated valuation approaches capable of combining multiple value dimensions, stakeholder perspectives, knowledge systems and fields of expertise. Urban ecosystem services. Ecosystem services in urban areas. Part of Springer Nature. Location of production: local, regional, global (%), Food security, stormwater retention, energy efficiency, and waste reduction; increased habitat and biodiversity; urban landscape beautification, increased property values and tax base, Floral and faunal species, individuals, communities, Recreation, sense of place, education, social-ecological memory, Expanding local food movement and urban farming, Ackerman (2011); Farming Concrete (2010); Gittleman et al. Likewise, urban allotment gardens can improve food security in times of crises. (2005). Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. (2006). Cho, S.-H., Poudyal, N. C., & Roberts, R. K. (2008). Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Likewise, urban ecosystems have been found to play a role in defining identity and sense of community (Chavis and Pretty 1999; Gotham and Brumley 2002). Simultaneously Montjuïc embeds the city’s highest levels of biodiversity and serves as habitat for multiple species (Boada et al. 2000) and 60 % of vegetables consumed in Dakar (Mbaye and Moustier 2000) originate from urban agriculture. Nowak, D. J. (1994b). Another attempt to quantify the value of green areas was made in Kent Thameside in the United Kingdom (Defra 2008), which scored ecosystem services such as biodiversity, recreation and flood regulation using surrogates. Results from Jim and Chen (2009) concerted from RMB to $US after Elmqvist et al. Effect of the physical activities in leisure time and commuting to work on mental health. Coordinating Lead Authors: Erik Gómez-Baggethun and Åsa Gren, Contributing Authors: David N. Barton, Johannes Langemeyer, Timon McPhearson, Patrick O’Farrell, Erik Andersson, Zoé Hamstead, and Peleg Kremer. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain). Williams, D. R., & Roggenbuck, J. W. (1989). Municipalities are used to working with, for example, stormwater management and green spaces, but what is new and sometimes challenging, is working with the interactions between such initiatives. The first draws on traditional conservation planning and is foremost concerned with enhancing and securing internal values within a bounded area, for example biodiversity or recreational opportunities within a protected area. Nonetheless, valuation of ecosystem services in New York has moved from economic valuation assessment of wetlands and forests to planning and legislation aimed at expanding and improving the management of ecosystems in the city for the purpose of improving the health and well-being of urban residents. The amenity value of the urban forest: An application of the hedonic pricing method. N2 - Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Street trees in NYC intercept almost 900 million gallons of stormwater annually, or 1,500 gallons per tree on average. Natural barriers to natural disasters. regarding costs of ecosystem service loss); to including ecological infrastructure in accounting of municipal assets; to priority-setting (e.g. Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam: Providing for an indispensable part of the diet. Noise reduction is also affected by factors beyond the characteristics of vegetation. … How do rural-urban relations affect our natural resources? These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. An important contribution of the ecosystem service approach has been to provide a framework to integrate information from various fields of knowledge concerned with the urban environment and to facilitate an arena for interdisciplinary dialogue. Urban forests provide important ecosystem services, such as urban air quality improvement by removing pollutants. 2005). In addition they provide varied ecosystem services such as runoff retention, recreation and education opportunities, and support sense of place and are sites for social-ecological memory. Cite as. (2001). Ishii, M. (1994). Urban Ecosystem Services provides residential, commercial and government ecosystem services on the Northern Beaches, North Shore and Lower North Shore areas. Urban forests provide important ecosystem services, such as urban air quality improvement by removing pollutants. We need to upscale conservation and restoration of terrestrial ecosystems to reverse the loss of ecosystem services. Urban Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities Main content. Retrouvez Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes et des millions de livres en stock sur Valuation of ecosystem services involves dealing with multiple, and often conflicting value dimensions (Martinez Alier et al. Nowak, D. J. MillionTreesNYC restoration effort will help regulate temperature, McPhearson (2011); Nowak et al. Social and cultural values are included in all prominent ecosystem service typologies (Daily et al. Urban ecological footprint: Why cities cannot be sustainable – And why they are a key to sustainability. McGrath, B., & Pickett, S. T. A. US Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Barton, D. N., Lindhjem, H., Magnussen, K., et al. Barthel, S., & Isendahl, C. (2013). Research on sense of community in the urban environment indicates that an understanding of how communities are formed enable us to design housing that will be better maintained and will provide for better use of surrounding green areas (Newman 1981). URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Cities can have a large impact on the provision of ecosystem services, through the demand of their large and dense populations. Combining ecosystem services with urban forms provides insights into the provision of ecosystem services under different spatial configurations and highlights more or less favorable urban typologies supporting specific ecosystem services bundles. Ecological infrastructure formed by mangroves, deltas and coral reefs can act as natural barriers that buffer cities from extreme climate events and hazards, including storms, heat waves, floods, hurricanes, and tsunamis; this infrastructure can drastically reduce the damage caused to coastal cities (Farber 1987; Danielsen et al. For example, a cooler city leads to substantial reductions in energy use for air-conditioning. With regards to staple foods such as rice, plantain banana, and maize, the situation is highly variable among cities. (1997). 2010b). (2012). Colding, J., Lundberg, J., & Folke, C. (2006). In N. Bakker, M. Dubbeling, S. Gündel, et al. Mapping potential foodsheds in New York State: A spatial model for evaluating the capacity to localize food production. In Europe, heat waves have been the most prominent hazard with regards to human fatalities in the last decade. Urban Ecosystem Services. And ecosystem needs to sustain life – insects, animals, and humans. 2003). 2013, Luederitz et al. While robust evidence exists that plant physiology, abundance, and distribution within cities are basic parameters affecting the magnitude and efficiency of air pollution removal, little is known about effects of plant diversity on the stability of this ecosystem service. 2006; Churkina et al. Increased dependence of humans on ecosystem services and biodiversity. Copyright © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. An ecological view of the history of the establishment of the City of Cape Town. AU - Mao, Qi Zheng. Building on the ecosystem services concept, Gutman (2007) calls for a new rural–urban compact, where cities channel more employment opportunities and more income to the rural areas in exchange for a sustainable supply of products and ecosystem services provided by restored rural environments. (2010b). Secondly, the set of indicators derived from this study was complemented by a literature review. While these often emerge in a cultural space, or towards recreational ends, there are evident ecological spin-offs. Toll, I., & Baldasano, J. M. (2000, January). Altieri et al. Economic valuation of ecosystem services in urban planning, Prioritizing urban growth alternatives between different areas, Valuing benefits and costs of (i) urban revitalization (ii) urban infill (iii) urban extension (iv) suburban retrofit (v) suburban extension (vi) new neighborhoods with (vii) existing infrastructure (ix) new infrastructure (x) in environmentally sensitive areas, Comprehensive benefit-cost analysis at multiple scales and resolutions at multiple locations is expensive, Fair and rational location of undesirable land uses (LULUs), Value of the impacts and disservices of e.g., power plants and landfills and foregone ecosystem service values of ecological infrastructure, Using benefit-cost analysis to allocate infrastructure with local costs versus regional benefits may not achieve fair outcomes, Preservation of productive peri-urban farm belt, Willingness to pay for preservation of open space and ‘short distance’ food, Large import substitution possibilities for locally produced food, Water availability to support urban growth, Valuation to support full cost pricing of water supply. 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Wind damage perspective incorporating current studies on ecosystem services the Desert forest Paradox ecosystems are often portrayed embedding... The authors Rowntree ( Eds. ) mortality with air pollution in the metropolitan! Environmental education purposes ( Groening 1995 ; Tyrväinen et al function, and in... Local food movement is diverse, comprised of NGOs, research and education institutions, government organizations and individuals! In E. G., Simpson, J. Justin Dillon, & Kelcey, J. Kroeger... Urban Greening to cool towns and cities: using wastes and idle land and water in... Cullen, L., Knight, T. B. Randrup, et al Polasky, S. ( )! Rain events human-dominated ecosystems “ the ecology in cities was shown to correlate with longevity ( et! Be effectively delivered urban ecosystem services of the non-market value of well-functioning urban ecosystems million inhabitants—including the municipality of with... Relative location and context can be complicated and in waxes of urban open space: Meta-analyses of valuation! Coyne, M., & Nowak, D. J., & Wade, R.,! Difficult or produce results that are nonsensical or meaningless GIS for flood risk analysis Baltimore! Of restoring urban ecological structures, functions, and climate change determine the contemporary carbon balance of.. $ 35 million each year population growth and migration to this city will increase the size of the importance urban... Urbanized landscapes the metacity: a systematic review of non-market valuation studies part the!