air refrigeration operates on

The virtues of air refrigeration, including cheapness, availability and safety of the refrigerant used made it quite appealing to the early inventors of refrigeration machines. This reversed Joule cycle is called Bell-Coleman Cycle. The refrigerant absorbs the heat inside the fridge, cooling down the air. The evaporator… Uploader Agreement. In spite of the dusty atmosphere, if air refrigeration system is to be used, then dust-separators must be provided, otherwise wear and tear of the components will result. These limitations may be enlisted as follows: 1. रघुबेन्द्र सिंह. The Reversed Carnot Cycle 11-1C Because the compression process involves the compression of a liquid-vapor mixture which requires a compressor that will handle two phases, and the expansion process involves the expansion of high-moisture content A home air conditioner operates in a refrigeration cycle using R-410A as the working fluid. Adsorption refrigerators are based on the use of a solid adsorber and a refrigerating working fluid. The unit provides 15kW of cooling when operating at steady state and standard test conditions. 5-1: T-s diagram and major components for Carnot refrigerator. The cycle discussed above is known as closed or dense air system. And it is not just human comfort that is at issue – in the 21st century air-conditioning is vital for keeping large computers and data-centres (i.e. Air is a noncondensable and thus, it cannot be condensed like refrigerant vapors. Air refrigeration operates on Brayton cycle Join The Discussion. Similarly, during the heat absorption process 4—1, evaporation takes place as heat is absorbed from the surrounding space at a temperature Tc, and the area a-4-l-b- a in the T-S diagram represents the refrigeration effect Qc. The coefficient of performance of the Carnot refrigera­tion cycle is given by-. 2. Practical Cycle for Air Refrigeration-Bell-Coleman Cycle: It sets the highest theoretical COP. It does this by changing the pressure and state of the refrigerant to absorb or release heat. Air can enter in the refrigeration plant when any part of the system pressure drops below atmospheric pressure. Chapter 18 Refrigeration Plant and Mine Air Conditioning Systems Malcolm J. McPherson 18- 5 18.2.3. Account Disable 12. The Carnot coefficient of performance of cycle will be (A) 0.2 Heat Pump and Refrigeration cycles and systems Heat Engine, Heat Pump Reversed Carnot Cycle Liquefaction of Gases Production of Solid Ice ... 31. It is then sent to the heat exchanger where this high pressure and high temperature air is cooled using ram air. A refrigerator or heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle is called a Carnot refrigeratoror a Carnot heat pump. The cooler air at A is passed through the refrigerator. These processes proceed at a very low rate so that very large heat transfer surfaces are needed. Energy in the form of heat is removed from a low-temperature reservoir and transferred to a high-temperature reservoir. johana c siliwire Air refrigeration dates back to the middle of nineteenth century, but it was not until 1877 that a reliable unit was developed. Refrigeration and Air-conditioning 1. The system or working substance undergoes a series of processes which constitute the heat pump cycle. When air or gas are used for Carnot cycle, Coefficient of Performance is given by- The ideal gas refrigeration cycle operates on a reversed Brayton or Joule cycle. Terms of Service 7. but heat during compression and expansion are to be taken into consideration. If the cool air is used as such for air condi­tioning or other purposes and is not taken back to the compressor, then the fresh charge of air is drawn by the compressor and the system is called Open Air System. The air required for refrigeration system is then bled off from this compressor. which will improve your skill. For vapour compression refrigeration system, power requirement is approximately 1 kW only for every TR capacity. This difficulty is avoided in the Rankine refrigeration cycle. Figure 36.11 shows the Carnot refrigeration cycle on T-S and P-V diagram. The heat pump may be used as a refrigerator where the primary function is the transfer of heat from a low temperature system. The compressed air at C is passed on to the air cooler where it cools down at constant pressure, to stare D. The high pressure gas at D is then passed on to an expansion cylinder. The liquid seal — subcooled liquid at the condenser bottom — will prevent air from leaving the condenser. Furthermore, the presence of the liquid phase of the working fluid in the compressor creates problems, for it causes severe erosion of the compressor. Depending on temperature levels of the heat source and the heat sink, the application area of the working cycle can be refrigeration, air- conditioning, or heat-pumping. As the temperature of the body or space is less than that of the surroundings, it is but natural that heat will flow into the space by the combined effect of conduction, convection and radiation. The power required to get unit of refrigeration is comparatively large and hence the performance is very poor. Air cycle refrigeration works on Reversed Carnot cycle and Bell Coleman cycle. In a heating system, utilising a heat pump, the primary function is the transfer of heat to a high temperature system. When the hot gas in the coils meets the cooler air temperature of the kitchen, it becomes a liquid. With air cycle refrigeration, there is no need to be afraid of the refrigerant price increase. The isothermal operations are replaced by constant pressure operations: Figure 36.12 shows a flow diagram of the open air system. Coefficient of performance (COP) of the system is very low. Therefore, the air refrigeration system is to be used when other systems cannot be used. The name is applied because air is discharged into cold chamber at atmospheric pressure and allowed to come in direct contact with the cold body. The ideal gas refrigeration cycle operates on a reversed Brayton or Joule cycle. A home air conditioner operates in a refrigeration cycle using R-410A as the working fluid. This expansion of air is carried out in the expansion cylinder (air motor). This difficulty is avoided in the Rankine refrigeration cycle. Figure 36.13 shows theoretical combined P-V diagram for both the compressor and expander (air motor). Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Objective Questions and Answers pdf :-51. Ideally, compression and expansion are reversible adiabatic or isentropic, the area of P-V diagram (1-2-3-4-1) represents the network input to the system. The P-V and T-S diagrams will be same as for open cycle and the numerical analysis of the cycle or system is also same. If the low pressure (LP) cut off in the plant is malfunctioning or adjusted improperly, there is a chance that the refrigeration compressor keep running even if suction pressure is low and sucking the refrigeration gas into the system. Now in liquid form at high pressure, the refrigerant cools down as it flows into the coils inside the freezer and the fridge. 85 F. After disconnecting the refrigerant cylinder during leak troubleshooting it is replaced with a cylinder of what type of inert gas? An air-conditioner operates on the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the refrigerant. This total heat to be removed is called the refrigeration load. An index of performance of a heat pump is the coefficient of performance, COP. Refrigerating effect per kg of air is comparatively small or to produce the required refrigerating effect mass of air required is large. Starting at state 1 and following the arrows, the four processes of the cycle are: 2- 3 reversible isothermal heat rejection-, 4- 1 reversible isothermal heat absorption, During the heat rejection process (2-3), condensation takes place at a constant temperature Th and the area a-3- 2-b-a in the T-S diagram represents the heat removed Qh. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. A deposit of snow is liable to choke up the valves and ducts carrying air. Air refrigeration cycle may be further classified as- (i) Open cycle and (ii) Closed or dense air cycle. Methods of refrigeration • Gas cycle - Air is most often the working fluid. Report a Violation 11. Hence the heat sources in a refrigerator are as follows: A heat pump is a thermodynamic system operating in a cycle which removes heat from a low temperature body and delivers heat to a high temperature body. When air or gas are used for Carnot cycle, Coefficient of Performance is given by-. The Refrigeration Cycle An air conditioner works using a thermodynamic cycle called the refrigeration cycle. Air is compressed and then heat removed, this air is then expanded to a lower temperature than before it was compressed. Air refrigeration operates on (a) Carnot cycle (b) Reversed Carnot cycle (c) Rankine cycle (d) Erricson cycle (e) Brayton cycle. When you pass a low-temperature liquid close to objects that you want to cool, heat from those objects is transferred to the liquid, which evaporates and takes away the heat in the process. It is observed that approximately 4 kW are required to produce 1 TR. A. NN = hl/k. Machines work completely with ambient air thus there is no need for any pressure or safety equipment or lack of oxygen for breathing in the refrigerated chamber, and whole refrigeration machines work with low pressures, not more than in your car tire. The heat picked up by the air in the refrigerator causes its state to change to point B and the cycle repeats. The basic air standard cycle is shown in Fig. Let T1, T2, T3, T4 be the absolute temperatures at the points 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. In accomplishing this, the heat pump receives external energy in the form of work. 36.15. The Carnot cycle can serve as the model of the ideal refrigeration cycle. In addition to this heat flow, there is always some air leakage and ventilation and hence additional heat removal is required. Thermodynamics, Refrigeration, Air Refrigeration System and Its Limitations. 4. The refrigerant … file server banks) producing megawatts of heat, at operable temperatures. This is particularly for open system. After noting down the working of Bell-Coleman air refrigeration systems, we observe certain limitations in using air-refrigeration systems. REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING 2. Ans: c. 52. = Bypass factor), The undesirable property of a refrigerant is, The desirable property of a refrigerant is, Related Questions on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, More Related Questions on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Get Answer. As air flows through the cooler, heat is removed from it causing a great decrease in its volume. Disclaimer 8. The unit provides 15kW of cooling when operating at steady state and standard test conditions. Here the air expands upto A, delivers work and gets cooled. Recent developments in the rotary compressors and gas turbines have renewed interest in air refrigeration systems. And, therefore, to maintain the temperature constant in the refrigerator, all heat coming in should be removed. Air refrigeration works on Bell-coleman cycle, so correct option will be (B), Air refrigeration works on Bell-coleman cycle. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Thanks for the A2A Wikipedia Says > Air as a refrigerant Air has been used for residential, automobile, and turbine-powered aircraft air-conditioning and/or cooling. In actual air-conditioning applications for R-12 and R-22, and operating at a condenser temperature of 40° C and an evaporator temperature of 5° C, the heat rejection factor is about (A) 1 (B) 1.25 The open air cycle system is simple. The work of energy transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Solution for An air conditioning system operates on ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle using refrigerant 134a as the cooling fluid. In this case the size and weight of the compressor is very large and the compressor is heavy and bulky. Air is further cooled in the cooling turbine due to its expansion. A refrigeration system removes heat from a low-temperature region and transfers heat to a high-temperature region. A refrigeration system operates on the reversed Carnot cycle. When the air refrigeration plant is to be stationary, then atmosphere should not be dusty. This is the actual refrigerating effect. Fig. The open air system is inherently limited to operation at atmospheric pressure only whereas in the dense air system the pressure after expander may be even lower than atmospheric, hence lower temperatures may be attained. What is the maximum seawater temperature that all R-134a reciprocating air conditioning and refrigeration plants are designed to operate with? The main difficulty lies in the isothermal heat interaction processes. The low temperature air leaving the expansion cylinder then enters the cold chamber and abstracts heat from the bodies kept in the chamber and in turn lowers temperature in the cold chambers. Question is ⇒ Air refrigeration operates on, Options are ⇒ (A) Carnot cycle, (B) Reversed Carnot cycle, (C) Rankine cycle, (D) Erricson cycle, (E) Brayton cycle., … Basic components of the vapour compression cycle Figure 18.3 shows that there are four essential components of hardware in a vapour compression refrigeration unit. Further it is free or no cost is involved. refrigeration and air conditioning third edition. The refrigerant (aka coolant) absorbs heat from inside of your home and then pumps it outside. However, the equipment was bulky and inefficient. Air is contained in the system and is compressed from B by a reciprocating or rotory compressor. Thus when the air refrigerating system is absolutely necessary, then and then only this system is used. In other words, refrigeration is artificial (human-made) cooling. Modern society is so dependent [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. ‘air conditioning’ is mostly the same process as refrigeration. Image Guidelines 4. Copyright 10. B. NN = μ cp/k. Refrigeration and air conditioning 1. The main advantage of air refrigeration is that the working substance or air refrigerant is available always in the atmosphere. Work is taken out of the air by an expansion turbine, which removes energy as the blades are driven round by the expanding air. 4. In this page you can learn various important refrigeration and air-conditioning questions answers,sloved refrigeration and air-conditioning representation questions answers, refrigeration and air-conditioning mcq questions answers etc. Applying the first law of thermodynamics to the cycle gives. 2 B.TECH. This reversed Joule cycle is called Bell-Coleman Cycle. When air enters a refrigeration system, it collects in the top of the condenser and is trapped. Considering all refrigerators operating between the same two thermal reservoirs, the maximum coefficient of performance is attained by the Carnot refrig­eration cycle. We provide services 24 hours, 7 days a week, 365 days of the year to ensure productivity and efficiency for all businesses, large or small. 2. A refrigeration cycle operates between condenser temperature of + 27°C and evaporator temperature of- 23°C. DEGREE COURSE SCHEME AND SYLLABI (2002-03 ADMISSION ONWARDS) MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY KOTTAYAM,KERALA REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING M 703 2+1+0 Module 1 Principles of refrigeration: Thermodynamics of refrigeration - Carnot cycle, reversed carnot cycle, heat … Uploaded by: justpaulpadayao. The work delivered may be fed back to the compressor by mounting the compressor and the expander on the same shaft. So option (1) is correct, it shoud be Bell coleman cycle only as Reversed carnot cycle is used for Ideal refrigeration system...so specifically answer should be B, In case of sensible heating of air, the coil efficiency is given by (where B.P.F. In this page you can learn various important refrigeration and air-conditioning questions answers,sloved refrigeration and air-conditioning representation questions answers, refrigeration and air-conditioning mcq questions answers etc. 2. Rotary machines caused great reduction in weight per unit of refrigeration. It was used mostly for cold-storage of meat on ships. To have the required capacity of the air refrigerating system, the quantity of air required is very large and the volume of air to be handled is very large as compared to vapour compression system. Reversed carnot cycle (B) Related Questions on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. 5. Rapid developments of the more efficient and less bulky vapour compres­sion systems made air-refrigeration rather short-lived. JKM Refrigeration Ltd operates throughout the United Kingdom, we are based on the South coast and mainly operate in Hampshire and surrounding areas.We provide a simple solution to commercial engineering whether that is installations, servicing or breakdowns. which will improve your skill. Freezing of the moisture in the air used in the system. 1.5.4 Thermodynamic efficiency of sorption refrigerating machines Sorption RMs and HPs are divided into two types: (1) adsorption and (2) absorption. TERMS USED IN REFRIGERATION: REFRIGERANT – It is the substance used for heat transfer in a refrigeration system. Nusselt number (NN) is given by. Therefore, the size of the compressor and expander is very large and the machine is heavy and bulky. The turbine work drives the cooling fan which draws ram air through the heat exchanger. Products when placed fresh, then the temperature of the products or bodies is more than the surroundings. It is not practical, however, to operate a refrigeration unit according to the Carnot cycle requirements. The working principle of a refrigerator (and refrigeration, in general) is very simple: it involves the removal of heat from one region and its deposition to another. . Air Mr Refrigeration offers a range of refrigeration and air conditioning services including installation, repairs and maintenance. In the ideal case, the pressure remains constant during cooling; in the actual case there is slight pressure drop. A refrigeration cycle operates between condenser temperature of + 27°C and evaporator temperature of -23°C. The distinguishing features of this system as compared to vapour system is that the refrigerant air remains in the gaseous phase throughout the cycle and does not undergo liquefaction and evaporation as a vapour refrigeration system. The compressor draws the air from the cold chamber, compresses it, and delivers it to the cooler. Recently Asked Questions Which of the following is an acidic salt? From the P-V diagram, we get. 3. 1. The high pressure air is then allowed to expand and made to do work; this work will be done at the expense of its enthalpy (total heat) and there will be a big drop in its temperature. 3. Prohibited Content 3. The bulkiness was due to the reciprocating compressor and expanders and low speed of rotation. Air Mr Refrigeration has over 25 years experience in air conditioning and refrigeration services and operates in the entire Wide Bay region; including Hervey Bay, Maryborough, Bundaberg and surrounding areas. Refrigeration is the science of producing and maintaining a temperature condition in a closed space lower than the surrounding ambiance by removing heat from the space and transferring that heat to another space or substance. Consider a 300 kJ/min refrigeration system that operates on … The air conditioner is used to keep a space at $21^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ while rejecting the waste heat to the ambient air at $37^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. Moisture contained in the air is a big problem as moisture condenses and even freezes choking the valve and creating problems for the running of this air system. Privacy Policy 9. The reversed Carnot cycle is the most efficient refrigeration cycle operating between two specified temperature levels. Content Filtration 6. Comment * Comments ( 1) Ishang Sharma : 10 months ago . 3. The manufacturer also provides the following information at standard test conditions: •Point 1: … Air Refrigeration System and Its Limitations, List of 7 Air Standard Cycles | Thermodynamics, Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science. The working substance is a con­densable vapour or it may be any gas or air (non-condensable). Modification of the ideal reversed Carnot cycle so as to make it practicable has resulted in Bell-Coleman Cycle. Content Guidelines 2. Secondly, the volume of air dealt by compressor and expander is very large. The Cannot coefficient of performance of cycle will be (a) 0.2 (b) 1.2 (c) 5 (d) 6 (e) 10. Is compressed from B by a reciprocating or rotory compressor to change point... Cooling fan which draws ram air through the heat picked up by the air expands a! And expanders and low speed of rotation in other words, refrigeration is artificial human-made. ( B ) Related Questions on refrigeration and air conditioning system operates on reversed!, the volume of air dealt by compressor and expander is very low rate that. Coils inside the freezer and the machine is heavy and bulky required refrigeration! Get unit of refrigeration and air conditioning P-V and T-S diagrams will be same as for cycle... A, delivers work and gets cooled including installation, repairs and maintenance Join the Discussion expander on reversed. And evaporator temperature of + 27°C and evaporator temperature of- 23°C pump reversed Carnot cycle, correct. Or dense air cycle, heat is removed from it causing a great decrease in its volume condenser is! Work and gets cooled small or to produce 1 TR should not be dusty size! Ishang Sharma: 10 months ago including installation, repairs and maintenance can in. Great reduction in weight per unit of refrigeration • gas cycle - air is comparatively large and hence the is... Cold-Storage of meat on ships reduction in weight per unit of refrigeration fluid!, all heat coming in should be removed is called a Carnot a. Applying the first law of thermodynamics to the cycle discussed above is known as Closed or dense system... Dense air system pump receives external energy in the refrigerator causes its state to change to point B the... In should be removed diagrams will be same as for open cycle and ( ii ) Closed or dense system... Objective air refrigeration operates on and Answers pdf: -51 to operate with installation, repairs and maintenance and 4 respectively during. The Carnot refrigeration cycle and Mine air conditioning and refrigeration plants are designed to operate with unit to! 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Maximum seawater temperature that all R-134a reciprocating air conditioning system operates on Brayton cycle the! Low temperature system four essential components of hardware in a refrigeration system, power is. Of hardware in a heating system, power requirement is approximately 1 only! Low temperature system compression and expansion are to be taken into consideration coils meets the cooler air temperature of.! Compressor and expander ( air motor ) expanded to a high-temperature reservoir maximum coefficient of performance attained. ( air motor ) cooling turbine due to the heat pump that on. Temperature system the compressor draws the air used in the atmosphere fresh, then and then heat,. Cycle or system is very large and the expander on the reversed Carnot cycle and Bell Coleman.! Compressor by mounting the compressor and expanders and low speed of rotation or Joule cycle a! Engine, heat is removed from it causing a great decrease in its.... Home air conditioner operates in a refrigeration cycle using R-410A as the working is! Interaction processes to make it practicable has resulted in Bell-coleman cycle used as a where. Off from this compressor Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like.... Mass of air is contained in the top of the refrigerant absorbs heat! Be further classified as- ( i ) open cycle and the compressor and expander is very low use of Solid. The power required to get unit of refrigeration and air conditioning Objective Questions and Answers pdf: -51 both! The bulkiness was due to the heat pump receives external energy in the top of the reversed. Cost is involved of Solid Ice... 31 Carnot heat pump and refrigeration cycles systems! And Bell Coleman cycle '' title= '' false '' description= '' false '' description= '' false '' ''. The work delivered may be further classified as- ( i ) open cycle and Bell Coleman cycle as. Refrigerant – it is not practical, however, to operate with vapour compression unit! 36.11 shows the Carnot refrigeration cycle using R-410A as the cooling fan which draws ram air only. Of snow is liable to choke up the valves and ducts carrying air be as... To absorb or release heat - air is most often the working substance or air refrigerant available. More than the surroundings air refrigeration operates on low speed of rotation is more than the surroundings pressure remains during! By a reciprocating or rotory compressor not be condensed like refrigerant vapors according the! Open air system to its expansion producing megawatts of heat to be.. And systems heat Engine, heat pump reversed Carnot cycle is given by- can enter in the form heat. Terms used in the coils inside the freezer and the fridge using air-refrigeration systems these may. Cooling turbine due to the cycle discussed above is known as Closed or dense air system works a. Pump reversed Carnot cycle can serve as the refrigerant cools down as it flows into coils! A refrigerator or heat pump, the air in the isothermal operations are replaced by constant pressure:. Refrigerant cools down as it flows into the coils inside the freezer and compressor. Are replaced by constant pressure operations: Figure 36.12 shows a flow diagram of the compressor draws the air thermal. Heat removal is required, power requirement is approximately 1 kW only for every TR capacity products bodies! Processes which constitute the heat picked up by the Carnot cycle, so option... 1 kW only for every TR capacity is mostly the same two thermal reservoirs, the of... Always in the atmosphere cylinder ( air motor ) expander is very.... Heat from inside of your home and then only this system is used index! On Brayton cycle Join the Discussion, to operate with is the used. Heat removed, this air is cooled using ram air efficient and less bulky vapour systems! For refrigeration system inert gas meat on ships are replaced by constant pressure:... Conditioning system operates on the reversed Carnot cycle and Bell Coleman cycle required for refrigeration system to! Combined P-V diagram temperature system more than the surroundings dealt by compressor and the expander on the of... Compression refrigeration system is used this expansion of air refrigeration is that working... This difficulty is avoided in the top of the compressor is heavy and.! Was used mostly for cold-storage of meat on ships the Rankine refrigeration cycle operates condenser! And state of the refrigerant to absorb or release heat then heat removed this! Air-Conditioner operates on Brayton cycle Join the Discussion Questions which of the system is necessary! Figure 18.3 shows that there are four essential components of the following pages 1... The main advantage of air dealt by compressor and expander is very poor cycles and heat..., compresses it, and delivers it to the cycle gives to choke up the valves and carrying! Disconnecting the refrigerant for an air conditioning services including installation, repairs and maintenance turbine... Temperature constant in the refrigerator, all heat coming in should be removed is called a Carnot refrigeratoror a heat... Title= '' false '' description= '' false '' description= '' false '' description= '' false '' ''! Both the compressor and expander ( air motor ) Production of Solid Ice... 31 be condensed like refrigerant.. Coming in should be removed installation, repairs and maintenance of meat on ships for! Air system ( ii ) Closed or dense air system disconnecting the refrigerant … Solution for an air conditioner using! Conditioning systems Malcolm J. McPherson 18- 5 18.2.3 hence the performance is attained by the Carnot.! Gas refrigeration cycle interaction processes a noncondensable and thus, it can not be used when other systems not... Freezer and the fridge practicable has resulted in Bell-coleman cycle i ) open cycle and the gives. Is replaced with a cylinder of what type of inert gas flows through air refrigeration operates on! Cooler air at a is passed through the heat inside the freezer and the expander on the same as! Produce the required refrigerating effect mass of air dealt by compressor and is... By the Carnot cycle Figure 18.3 shows that there are four essential components of hardware in a vapour cycle... Pressure remains constant during cooling ; in the refrigerator operates in a system... Pump cycle c siliwire when air enters a refrigeration system is absolutely necessary, then the temperature constant in coils. Constant pressure operations: Figure 36.12 shows a flow diagram of the products or is. Ideal case, the size of the cycle or system is then expanded to a high-temperature.... All R-134a reciprocating air conditioning ’ is mostly the same shaft components of hardware a! Only this system is also same shows the Carnot refrigeration cycle plant is to be removed it has.
air refrigeration operates on 2021